During pregnancy, various scans and tests may be recommended to monitor the health and development of the fetus. The specific scans and tests can vary depending on factors such as the mother’s health, the gestational age, and any potential risk factors. Here is a list of common scans and tests during pregnancy:
- Early pregnancy / Dating scan: Typically performed around 6-11 weeks to determine the due date and confirm the number of fetuses.
- Nuchal translucency (NT) scan: Done between 11 to 13.6 weeks to assess the risk of Down syndrome and other chromosomal abnormalities.
- Anamoly scan: Usually done around 18-20 weeks to check for structural abnormalities in the fetus.
- Fetal echocardiography: Fetal echocardiography (echo) uses sound waves to check the heart of developing baby. Fetal echo can help find heart defects before birth.
- Fetal growth and Doppler scan: Performed in the second and third trimester to monitor the baby’s growth and ensure it’s developing at a healthy rate and measures blood flow in the umbilical cord, placenta, and fetal organs to ensure adequate oxygen and nutrient supply to the baby.
- Scar thickness: Scar thickness measurement by transvaginal sonography in third trimester to measures the scar of previous caesarean.
- Cervical length: the cervical length is defined as the distance between the internal cervical os and the external cervical os.
- AFI: thisis an estimate of the amniotic fluid volume in pregnancy.
- Biophysical profile: refers to the assessment of four discrete biophysical variables by ultrasound including fetal tone, fetal breathing, gross body movement and amniotic fluid volume.
- Double marker: Combines a blood test with the NT scan to assess the risk of chromosomal abnormalities (T13, T18 and T21).
- Quad screen or quadruple marker test: Typically done between 15 and 20 weeks to screen for neural tube defects and chromosomal abnormalities (AFP, HCG, uE3 and Inhibin A).
- Non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT): A blood test that can screen for all chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, trisomy 18, and trisomy 13. It’s usually performed after 10 weeks of gestation.
- Chorionic villus sampling (CVS): Involves taking a small sample of the placenta to diagnose chromosomal abnormalities. Typically done between 10 and 13 weeks.
- Amniocentesis: Involves taking a sample of amniotic fluid to diagnose chromosomal abnormalities and neural tube defects. It’s usually performed between 15 and 20 weeks.
It’s important to note that not all pregnant individuals will undergo every test or scan listed above. The specific recommendations will be based on the individual’s medical history, age, and any identified risk factors.